All mains connected electrical equipment worth more than about £10 (the cost of a cheap surge protector) would benefit from having unusual power events (spikes, brownouts, & surges) diverted from them to extend their lifetime or even protect them from total failure.
Surge protectors work by flattening out our irregular power supply usually by use of a metal oxide varistor (MOV) which degrades with each hit it takes. Each 'suge' above a threshold amount of energy (the clamping voltage) is absorbed by the MOV which acts like an overflow tank to protect equipment from the flood of excess energy.
Surge protectors are sold with an amount of protection - typically perhaps 1000 Joules where one Joule is the energy needed to pass an electric current of one ampere through a resistance of one ohm for one second. That means they can function for just one hit of 1000 Joules, or 10 hits of 100 Joules, or zero hits in excess of 1000 Joules.
So the quality and price of a surge protector is partly determined by the number of Joules it can absorb. Once that number has been received the protection is useless - IT DOES NOT FAIL SAFE. That is why it is essential to periodically confirm how much protection is currently being offered.
Many protectors have amber lights to indicate that power is flowing, and also green ones the brightness of which indicates the amount of protection. No bright green light = impared protection.
The other main factor determining quality and cost of a protector is the amount of time it takes to recognise a power event - the fewer milliseconds the better.
So the lifespan of a surge protector is not measured in time but in the number of hits it has taken multiplied by the cumulative size of those hits.
Also, most surge protectors are power strips with maybe 4 - 8 sockets. But not all power strips are surch protectors. The time to check is now.
It is easy to get poor service through lack of experience when selecting a provider for your broadband service. On behalf of clients I deal with most of the main providers and have developed a good feel for what's below par. The 'best' ISP can vary from one street to the next depending on the location of the infrastructure equipment and so my recommedations are based on the specific address as well as the following things.
When your computer becomes slow or your disk drive fills up or you upgrade to a new computer because of failure, you may want to copy things to the new faster disk drive. Clearly the copying of documents, photos, and music is relatively straight forward but there are other things to be copied: saved email and the matching accounts, favourite bookmarks from your browsers, address books, and sometimes programs. It’s not that straightforward.
With the plain data files such as documents and spreadsheets you need to be sure that the access control data that accompanies them matches the account(s) of the destination. Music may need to be de-authorised then authorised and catalogued.
Usually programs cannot be copied (unless designed as portable) as they rely on registry entries and dynamic link library registration and maybe also a programming framework. There is an exception though: where nothing except the disk drive is changing it is often possible to migrate programs by duplicating the disk signature.
The way that all the main software suppliers prevent loss of income by people sharing their programs and only paying once is to cause them to check for a duplicate product key or activation code. But how do they know when a product is legitimately reinstalled on the same computer ? The answer is that they record details of the computer that cannot easily be replicated; so if the MAC address of a network card is different or the serial number of the motherboard has changed they will know that an attempt at piracy is afoot.
But when nothing other than a disk drive is being changed it is possible to duplicate the disk signature to allow the programs now residing on a different device to work as before without the need to buy a new license. Not doing so may seem cheaper in the short term, but when the cost of additional licenses is factored in it turns out cheaper to have a copy operation professionally done.
However if simply adding a new disk drive to an existing one the opposite is true: disk signatures must be confirmed to differ as if a collision occurs Windows will become unbootable.
So here’s the thing – if you are kind enough to invite me round for dinner and afterwards place a cup of coffee before me I will feel bad. I’d appreciate the gesture but I don’t drink coffee so I would either have to drink it (yuk) to avoid upsetting you or cause embarrassment by asking you to throw it away. If only you had put water before me – something that everyone drinks and there’s no problem tossing it down the sink.
It’s the same with email attachments – if you assume that the recipient can read your chosen format you may be wrong. Far better to convert to a universally recognised format such as .PDF - a format that, unlike editable documents (such as Word.DOCx or Ability Write.aww) is very hard to inject an infection into.
Also, it is polite to make it clear whether you are emailing a distribution list (or mail merge) to a large group or just an individual. Replies to an individually addressed person are polite, whereas a mass mailing does not warrant a reply from everyone merely to acknowledge receipt.
Mailing several people ? Use the BCC: field to hide the addresses from other addressees. That way a single virus infected computer cannot harvest all your correspondents’ addresses in preparation for spear phishing attacks.
Wanting to send a few photos to someone ? Have a thought for their time and download capacity. Rather than attaching many individual files just upload them to a free cloud store (e.g. Google Drive, Microsoft OneDrive, or Dropbox) then share the link.
Too busy to reply to a message within 24 hours ? Send an acknowledgement of receipt – save the other side from wondering whether it was lost in transit and having to decide when to send you a pester note.
Please comment below about the above or any that I have missed.
P.S. Although not strictly on topic, when you make a post in a forum think about the subject and how anyone visiting later would be searching. Titles such as "another problem" or "what causes this" give no clue to the subject under discussion, will get far fewer people bothered to go to the trouble of reading through to help in your case, and give no regard to later generations trying to avoid reinventing the wheel.
The regular Google Earth has been free for ages and given users the ability to get views of most places from the Google satellite down to the Google car. It gives 3D images from your street to Mars. Now though the Pro edition has been made free. You still need a license but that comes by email a minute or two after you sign up at
I recommend the flight simulator mode of travel. You can get tutorials from http://www.google.com/intl/en_uk/earth/learn/
This is good for both Windows and Macintosh computers although your experience will be enhanced with a modern good quality computer.
It is sometimes interesting to know how your broadband speed is varying over time, or perhaps check on the quality of your line graphically. Two free tools that help this are
Jack Dinn's AutoSpeedTester available from http://www.gmwsoftware.co.uk/ This displays in bar chart and log table modes the upload and download speeds every few minutes. Also, usefully, the PING and Jitter. There is a performance hit when you use this to think carefully before setting this to run too frequently.
RouterStats available from http://www.vwlowen.co.uk/internet/files.htm This will show the signal to noise ratio and bitloadings - very helpful in checking the network on your side of the router. Not all routers are supported but many are and as long as you know your router credentials it's not hard to set up.
Both these programs need configuration - they are not simple plug and play apps, but this shouldn't be much of a problem for those interested enough to download them in the first place.
It is common for devices to be able to connect with a network either through Wi-Fi or Ethernet. Given that a hard wired Ethernet cable has a theoretical speed of twice Wi-Fi, it make sense to ensure you are passing data over the fastest available connector. To set the priority of Ethernet over Wi-Fi proceed as follows.
For Apple Mac OS X open Network Preferences. From the cog at the bottom left choose Set Service Order... Now drag Ethernet to the top of the list. Click OK then click the Apply button.
For Windows 8 open Control Panel > Network and Sharing Center > Change adapter settings. If Always show menus is not set in the Folder Options then press the Alt key to get the menu. Choose Advanced > Advances Settings... and in the Adapters and Bindings tab select Ethernet and click the up arrow to get it to the top of the list. OK.
For Linux it varies a lot sepending on which distro you have. Editing /etc/network/interfaces to reduce the network that should have highest priority is a common method on many. FOr others the ifconfig command allws metrick adjustment.
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